amur honeysuckle uses
Seedling distribution and potential persistence of the exotic shrub Lonicera maackii in fragmented forests. L. quinquelocularis Hardwicke may be the same as L. maackii except for having translucent fruits with dark seeds (eFloras, 2013). Honeysuckle is associated by Culpeper with the planet Mercury and the sign Cancer . The opposite leaves a 2-3 inches (5-8 cm) long and taper into a narrow tip. It is not the intention of the editor to advise on health care. Japanese honeysuckle is ediblel. Please see a It grows as a tall, deciduous shrub in dense stands along woods edges, in disturbed forests and along riparian corridors, outcompeting native species for resources. Effects of exotic Lonicera and Rhamnus on songbird nest predation. Seeds germinate best in warm, humid, light conditions and are inhibited by dark (Luken and Goessling, 1995). © Copyright 2020 CAB International. The fruit is a black, berrylike drupe with three to five one-seeded stones. They were first introduced into the United States in the mid to late 1800s from Europe and Asia for use as ornamentals, wildlife food and cover, and erosion control. Plant-pollinator interactions between an invasive and native plant vary between sites with different flowering phenology. Most reports of naturalized populations began in the 1950s through to the 1970s (Luken and Thieret, 1996). Escapes from ornamental plantings were recorded in the 1920s and promoted for conservation and wildlife uses in the 60s and 70s. Facebook. Creating gaps by removing L. maackii shrubs can increase native generalist species establishment, but can also increase establishment of some other invasive species (Luken et al., 1997). Hutchinson and Vankat (1998) found that large agricultural fields provided a barrier to the spread of L. maackii on a landscape scale. Amur honeysuckle, its fall from grace. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2013. According to other sources, it is associated with the planet Venus and the element of Earth. remote sensing). Thanks for replying. Allelopathic effects of invasive species (Alliaria petiolata, Lonicera maackii, Ranunculus ficaria) in the Midwestern United States. Stem cutting in spring followed by spraying the regrowth with herbicide resulted in good control (Shulz et al., 2009). The bark is a light grayish brown on mature stems. Japanese Honeysuckle herb has been used as an alternative medicine for thousands of years in Asia. Stems can be cut and herbicide applied to the cut stem, or plants can be sprayed with a foliar spray of herbicide (Love and Anderson, 2009). Flora of Japan. Foliage The oppositely arranged leaves are ovate to lance-ovate in shape and measure 1.3-3.3 in. al., 2013). Beijing, China. Restoration Ecology, 17(4):549-559. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/rec, Luken JO, Goessling B, 1995. In the eastern and southern United States, Japanese honeysuckle is an important white-tailed deer food and is often invasive. Diminished plant richness and abundance below Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub. Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle); habit, showing leaves and fruits. Lonicera maackii, the Amur honeysuckle, is a species of honeysuckle in the family Caprifoliaceae that is native to temperate western Asia; specifically in northern and western China south to Yunnan, Mongolia, Primorsky Krai in southeastern Siberia, Korea, and, albeit rare there, central and northern HonshÅ«, Japan. However, these same characteristics make it a menace — and one you don’t want in your garden. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the honeysuckle flower links with the lung, stomach and large intestine meridians. Amur Honeysuckle Lonicera maackii Honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae) Description: This shrub is up to 20' tall, 15' across, and abundantly branched. Native A… Biological Invasions, 14(3):671-680. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u70h014705374u42/, Byrd Jr JD, Westbrooks R, 2013. Similar species: Bell’s honeysuckle (Lonicera x bella; invasive), Morrow’s honeysuckle (L. morrowii; invasive) and Tatarian honeysuckle (L. tatarica; invasive) are all very similar and equally invasive to Amur honeysuckle. http://www.itis.gov/, Janaki EK, Saunders B, 1952. Amur honeysuckle, ranging from 10 to 20 feet in height, dominated the understory along the perimeter of the woodlot which allowed for realistic side trim application. L. quinquelocularis Hardwicke is similar to L. maackii except for having translucent fruits with dark seeds (eFloras, 2013). Beijing, China. By the early 1900s L. maackii had received awards of merit from the British Royal Horticultural Society and plants were widely sold in European and North American nurseries (Luken and Thieret, 1996). L. maackii tends to grow in early to mid-successional communities (Swearingen et al., 2010). Plant Ecology, 166(1):13-24, Gould AMA, Gorchov DL, 2000. Maryland, USA. Compendium record. in order to stupefy or kill the fish, Read More about Honeysuckle Uses (Sponsored Informative Link). Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Lonicera maackii, the Amur honeysuckle, is a species of honeysuckle in the family Caprifoliaceae that is native to temperate western Asia; specifically in northern and western China south to Yunnan, Mongolia, Primorsky Krai in southeastern Siberia, Korea, and, albeit rare there, central and northern Honshū, Japan. Forest colonization and developmental growth of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii. It usually consists of three to four lateral roots and one or two vertical roots. Amur honeysuckle or bush honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) is a non-native shrub that you might be attracted to when you first hear about it. Leaves contain phenolic compounds including apigenin and chlorogenic acid (Cipollini et al., 2008). Canadian Journal of Botany, 73(12):1953-1961, McCullough C, 2009. Honeysuckle stems are harvested in the autumn and winter. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 98(1):1-17, Pringle JS, 1973. Oecologia, 165(1):153-159. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/0u5wgu272362h52w/, Webb CJ, Sykes WR, Garnock-Jones GJ, 1998. Plants are sold in nurseries and seeds are sold worldwide (Luken and Thieret, 1996). In the USA L. maackii sale and transportation is prohibited in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont (USDA-NRCS, 2013). Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System., USA: The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Vermont Department of Agriculture, 2013. Honeysuckle is a sustainable alternative to Goldenseal. Amur honeysuckle takes over the shrub layer and holds its leaves long after the rest of the forest. In North America it occurs from Ontario, Canada south to Georgia, USA and west to North Dakota and Texas (USDA-NRCS, 2013). Habitat-specific resilience of the invasive shrub amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) during repeated clipping. In addition, research suggests that birds nest-ing in honeysuckle are more likely to have their nests predated. Tokyo, Japan: Japanese Ministry of Environment, Japanese Society for Plant Systematists, 2013. Similar species: Bellâs honeysuckle (Lonicera x bella; invasive), Morrowâs honeysuckle (L. morrowii; invasive) and Tatarian honeysuckle (L. tatarica; invasive) are all very similar and equally invasive to Amur honeysuckle. Twenty-five ways to remove Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii). The PLANTS Database. The USDA received additional shipments of L. maackii seeds from Britain and Manchuria, China, in the early 1900s (Luken and Thieret, 1996). USA: The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. It prefers temperate climates with year-round moisture (Swearingen et al., 2010). Its dense growth competes with woody and herbaceous plants (Swearingen et al., 2010). 5. Shrubs are relatively long-lived with a documented age of at least 17 years (Deering and Vankat, 1999). http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/trees/handbook/th-3-27.pdf, Hidayati SN, Baskin JM, Baskin CC, 2000. Amur honeysuckle is not â¦ > 10°C, Cold average temp. No studies were found on the impact of L. maackii on threatened or endangered species. Plants are self-incompatible (Deering and Vankat, 1999). Habitat-specific resilience of the invasive shrub amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) during repeated clipping. In: Canadian Field-Naturalist, 87 54-55. Seed Science Research, 10(4):459-469, Hutchinson TF, Vankat JL, 1998. Texas Invasives.org., http://www.texasinvasives.org/, USDA-NRCS, 2013. Seeds from Russia were probably then distributed to gardens in Europe where it was being grown in England and Germany by the late 1800s (Luken and Thieret, 1996). May 2005. Transpiration by L. maackii in wetland sites could reduce water in ephemeral ponds and streams, adversely affecting amphibians and other organisms that depend on ephemeral wetlands (Boyce et al., 2011). Few insects feed on the plant, but birds and mammals spread the fruits. Description: An erect multi-stemmed erect deciduous shrub with arching branches that grows up to 30 feet tall. Prune back hard in winter to prevent the build-up of woody growth, provide a trellis. Arnoldia (Boston), 57(3):2-12. Essential oils are extracted from the flowers in China and artificial cotton is made from the stems (Zheng et al., 2006). The bark of older branches is gray with flat scaly ridges and narrow grooves. A study of fungi and arthropods on in China identified several species that live or feed on L. maackii (Zheng et al., 2006). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Honeysuckle stems are the preferred part of the plant to use in the treatment of skin care. Tropicos database. Dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of seeds of four Lonicera species (Caprifoliaceae) with underdeveloped spatulate embryos. ex Rehder (ITIS, 2013). A dendro-ecological study of forest overstorey productivity following the invasion of the non-indigenous shrub Lonicera maackii. UC used Landsat-8 images to examine five urban forests in Greater Cincinnati. It is unclear why L. maackii has established so successfully in North America but not in Europe, where it has also been planted as an ornamental. eFloras, 2013. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. According to the Healthline website, honeysuckle can be used to treat skin rashes, such as poison oak, cuts and abrasions on the skin. Applied Vegetation Science, 10(1):3-14. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1658/1402-2001%282007%2910%5B3%3AADSOFO%5D2.0.CO%3B2, Herman DE, Stange CM, Quam VC, 2013. Landscape structure and spread of the exotic shrub Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) in Southwestern Ohio forests. Along the latter, pairs of opposite leaves occur. Prohibited Vermont. L. maackii grows to be a tall shrub, up to 6 m high. Leaves on these Eurasian bush honeysuckles â¦ Maack was a naturalist and explorer who, in the 1850's, tromped through the mountainous borderland between northeastern China and Russian Siberia looking for things of scientific interest. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Pairs of fragrant, tubular, white to pinkish flowers, fading to yellow bloom from the leaf axils in mid to late spring. Specimens collected along the Amur River in Manchuria, northeast China, by plant explorer Richard Maack provided the first specimens described by taxonomist F. von Herder in 1864 (Luken and Thieret, 1996). 5. Leaves on these Eurasian bush honeysuckles are … The simple, opposite, pinnate leaves are oval to oblong in shape and are semi-evergreen and may persist on vines year-round, up to 3 inches in length. Native tree species perform better after the removal of L. maackii, but success depends on microclimates and the particular tree species (Hartman and McCarthy, 2004). Electronic Plant Information Centre (ePIC)., Kew, Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. The vines of the honeysuckle plant may symbolically twined together to bind two lovers to … CABI is a registered EU trademark. In North America, L. maackii is found in deciduous forests, along riparian corridors, in abandoned fields and on disturbed lands (Swearingen et al., 2010). http://agriculture.vermont.gov/sites/ag/files/pdf/plant_protection_weed_management/noxious_weeds/NoxiousWeedsQuarantine.pdf, Watling JI, Hickman CR, Lee E, Wang K, Orrock JL, 2011. Its specialties are workings to enhance love and sexuality. The extremely fragrant, two-lipped flowers are borne in pairs in the axils of young branches and are produced throughout the summer. The Amur Honeysuckle Tree is a fast growing, flowering shrub that has become invasive and established in roughly half of the United States and Canada.Growing upwards 25-30′ tall by 20′ wide with a thick canopy, it is highly adaptable to temperate climates.Once established this invasive species reeks havoc on any North American Ecosystem. Shrubs grown in shade that are then exposed to high light are able to produce new leaves which are better adapted to photosynthesizing under high light (Luken et al., 1995). White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) disperse seeds of the invasive shrub, Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii). L. maackii is critically endangered in parts of its native range in Japan. Bright red fruits 5-6 mm in diameter mature from late summer into autumn (Zheng et al., 2006). Noxious Weeds., Vermont, USA: Vermont Department of Agriculture. Foliage quality, however, tends to deteriorate as the growing season progresses. L. maackii appeared to facilitate pollination of an understory forest herb by flowering at the same time and attracting more pollinators. Restoration Ecology, 5(3):229-235, Luken JO, Mattimiro DT, 1991. http://agriculture.vermont.gov/sites/ag/files/pdf/plant_protection_weed_management/noxious_weeds/NoxiousWeedsQuarantine.pdf. After 5 years of growth, growth allocation changes from producing more stems to producing greater basal area. Seeds can be spread by birds over some distance to new sites. It has naturalized in the east and Midwest United States. Beijing Botanical Garden. ex Rehder, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. Texas Invasives.org. This plant has become a serious weed in many areas of N. America, but it might have the potential to be utilized for proven medicinal purposes. The herb is dried for later herb use. Bartuszevige AM, Gorchov DL, 2006. If in doubt about your locally available honeysuckle and you’re in the United States or Canada check out the Native American Ethnobotany database.It will list traditional uses and give you a way to try it out in your own home. My Hand Wired Tumbled Stone Necklaces make great Gifts and help support AltNature! No known biological controls exist (Batcher, 2000). Honeysuckle flowers may also be added to a Honey Jar. The edible buds and flowers, can be made made into a syrup. Vermont, USA: Vermont Department of Agriculture. Delaware Wildflowers., http://www.delawarewildflowers.org/, Texas Invasives, 2013. L. maackii is tolerant of freezing to at least -30°C and it grows in hardiness zones 3-8 (Herman et. In Japan, L. maackii is described as rare, occurring along the edges of montane deciduous forests and sometimes on calcareous rocks in northern and central Honshu (Flora of Japan, 2013). Flora of New Zealand, Vol. Little information is available on possible biological control agents for L. maackii. . Performance, plasticity, and acclimation of the nonindigenous shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) in contrasting light environments. It produces leaves earlier in the year and retains its leaves longer than native North American honeysuckles (Batcher and Stiles, 2000). The leaves are opposite, lightly hairy, and have long, acuminate tips. The USDA Soil Conservation Service promoted several cultivars of L. maackii from the 1960s to the 1980s for use in soil stabilization, reclamation and wildlife habitat improvement projects across the USA (Luken and Thieret, 1996). diagnose, treat, or cure any disease. Inland it is distributed from Pennsylvania and West Virginia west to Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Several fungi and arthropod species attack L. maackii in its native China (Zheng et al., 2006), but very few insects feed on L. maackii in the USA (Lieurance and Cippolini, 2012). Apparent competition: an impact of exotic shrub invasion on tree regeneration. The herbal information on this web site is intended for educational purposes Seedlings can be killed by fire (Munger, 2005). Customer Opinions, There are ways to help that don't cost money, too, like reviews, suggestions, links and more. American robins (Turdus migratorius) were found to have higher nest predation when they nested in L. maackii shrubs versus native shrubs because of a difference in shrub architecture (Schmidt and Whelan, 1999). Instagram It is still available for sale at some nurseries and online. DC includes species that are upright shrubs, while Nintooa (Spach) Maxim. Japanese Honeysuckle flowers range from 1 to 2 inches in length and are white with a slight purple or pink tinge when young, changing to white or yellow with age, they are edible. Kew Bulletin, 7(4):539-541, Japan Society for Plant Systematics, 2012. Allelopathy Journal, 29(1):63-76, Collier MH, Vankat JL, Hughes MR, 2002. L. maackii had been cultivated in Chinese gardens before it was collected by western explorers. Kew, Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution/NMNH. L. maackii was heavily promoted and planted from the 1960s to the 1980s in the USA, but its popularity has since declined. Seeds do not survive long in the seed bank, but large quantities of seeds are produced by plants (Luken and Goessling, 1995). Social Media and more. American Midland Naturalist, 147(1):60-71, Deering RH, Vankat JL, 1999. Radial and basal growth of existing trees declined in forests invaded by L. maackii (Hartman and McCarthy, 2007). Wisonsin, USA: Herbarium, Cofrin Center for Biodiversity, University of Wisconsin. One species we remove particularly often is Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii).Since 2010, CEES has facilitated service learning events for over 880 IUPUI students specifically to remove Amur Honeysuckle, totaling over 3800 hours of environmental restoration service. Honeysuckle is also used to reduce blood pressure. The study was located at Spindletop Research Station in Lexington, KY in an approximately 4 acre woodlot dominated by amur honeysuckle in the understory. Annual prescribed burnings will top-kill plants and inhibit resprouting (Batcher, 2000). Japanese Honeysuckle prefers partial shade to full sun and moist soil. http://data.gbif.org/species/, Goodell K, McKinney AM, Lin CH, 2010. Young plants can be removed by hand pulling, hoeing or digging. Different types of honeysuckle have been used for everything from poultices for bruises, leaves for contraception, bark for hair growth and more.. The leaves are opposite, Delaware Wildflowers. http://www.tropicos.org/, Owen HR, McDonnell AL, Mounteer AM, Todd BL, 2005. http://www.eddmaps.org/, eFloras, 2013. Honeysuckle is poetically known as “Woodbine” in some old herbal manuals. The invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii, reduces growth and fecundity of perennial forest herbs. The plant grows up to 16.5 ft tall obstructing sunlight from the plants below them. In its native range, L. maackii is found in eastern China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and far eastern Russia (eFloras, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2014). Leaf phenology and freeze tolerance of the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle and potential native competitors. Physiologically based control of invasive Asiatic shrub honeysuckle. Washington, D.C, USA: National Park Service and US Fish and Wildlife Service, 168, Texas Invasives, 2013. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). In its native range in China L. maackii grows in open forests and scrub areas (eFloras, 2013) from 1800 m to 3000 m above sea level (Zheng et al., 2006). TCM practitioners use the flower both internally and externally for a variety of health conditionsincluding skin infections, ulcers, fevers and inflammatory conditions. Amur honeysuckleâs wide adaptability to shade and to a variety of soils enables it to invade many different habitats. Biological Invasions, 9(7):849-855. http://www.springerlink.com/content/b213047286n34252/?p=86dd84a5ce1848b3b7d41925ca8539ee&pi=9, Miller KE, Gorchov DL, 2004.